No bluff here

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Image challenge

This man achieved a world first that earned him the Nobel Prize a few years later.
1. Which letter was sent this day ?
Today, in one of the two places chosen for this event, we can find an obelisk.
On it, there's at least two different plaques : one recalls the message previously found and the other one names, in single quotes, a means of transport.
2. What should the name have been if it had been easier to pronounce in English?
(Example: x alberta)